The chromosome DNA is replicated into two copies. Some organisms like humans are multicellular- made up of trillions of differientiated cells, while other living organisms like bacteria are composed of only 1 cell.
The specific order of the nucleotides is what provides a code for specific proteins. The spindle fibers are then used by the cell to pull the chromosomes Biology 101 notes the cell. Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase and Telophase. Some of the figures available under creative commons can be found here: Please note that this only applies to the pdf format study guides.
The two strands are held together by hydrogen bonds. In Anaphase I the homologous chromosomes are pulled to opposite poles, in Anaphase II the sister chromatids are pulled to opposite poles.
It is the same DNA molecule just given a different name depending on whether or not it is condensed into a structure that is visible under a light microscope. In Prohpase of Meiosis I, homologous chromosomes the 2 copies of the same chromosome inherited from each parent find each other and undergo homologous recombination- literally swapping parts of segments of the chromosome.
This process of change is called evolution. Examples of important organelles are the nucleus, mitochondria and chloroplast in photosynthetic organisms. The cell then divides into two cells- each with one identical chromosome. DNA deoxyribonucleic acid is the molecule that stores hereditary information.
A number of these changes over time can result in an organism with different characteristics. The list is meant to be brief so if any of the points seem unfamiliar, be sure to read more on the topic either on this site, other websites, your textbook, class notes, etc. These spindle fibers also attach to structures called centrioles.
In other words it selects for changes that confer a selective advantage. They instead have a region where DNA is located called the nucleoid.
The cell is the fundamental unit of life. Telocentric chromsomes have their centromere located at the end of the chromosome.
This creates versions of the chromosome that are a hybrid of each. In prophase you also have spindle fibers attaching to the centromeres regions of DNA on the chromosome.Class Notes Biology Lecture.
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